The topics listed below give rise to many crucial questions, which can be addressed in a dissertation. It should also be easy to find research pertaining to the issues raised. It is advisable, however, to get approval for your chosen topic before you begin reviewing available literature and starting on an outline for your paper. Your course advisor should be able (and willing) to work with you to identify the more interesting aspects of a  subject that appeals to you and even give you a list of sources worth exploring. Once that is done, you should be ready to commence work.

Topics for a Dissertation on Architecture

It is hoped you will find the following topic ideas helpful and inspirational:

  1. Evaluate the architectural achievement in the redevelopment of Kings Cross and St Pancras Stations.
  2. The changing face of civic building architecture – from the Parliament building in Edinburgh and Reichstag (the new German Parliament) to the Town Hall in Bradford.
  3. The Public Finance Initiative (PFI) and architecture – financing the future.
  4. How the architectural nature of social housing is changing.
  5. How our urban landscapes are being wilfully destroyed.
  6. A case study of suburban Britain from the early 1900s to 2000 – urban villages and architecture for the middle classes.
  7. The important role the CoE (Church of England) plays in architectural maintenance – guardians of the British nation.
  8. Compare Basil Spence’s buildings with the Lloyds building in London – planning “utilities.”
  9. Building green campuses – the higher education sector’s varied approaches towards the environment.
  10. Planning a brighter future – Heathrow airport.


Dissertation Topics on the Banking and Finance Industries

  1. How investments are impacted by alterations to interest rates.
  2. How the global and US economy are impacted by the Federal Reserve.
  3. The pros and cons of online banking and the implications for consumers.
  4. Emerging markets and the efficiency of these.
  5. Trading – the high-speed variety and the implications of the growth of this trend.
  6. How the banking sector is growing in countries that are predominantly Islamic.
  7. Managing risk in an investment bank.
  8. Reducing instances of identity theft and fraud in online banking.
  9. How financial services and credit are important for investment purposes and the growth of individuals.
  10. The latest developments in financing as a service provided by banks.
  11. How economies in developing countries are affected by foreign investors and investments.
  12. An exploration of micro-financing as a way of helping to fund people in developing countries.
  13. The security problems and risks inherent in Internet banking.
  14. Managing asset liability and other areas of banking.
  15. Issues associated with the banking industry in China’s burgeoning economy.
  16. How offshore banking is growing in popularity and the longer term implications of this.


Topics for a Dissertation on Communications

  1. The effects of “infotainment” on our society.
  2. International help programs.
  3. The modeling of disclosures by gay, lesbian, and bisexual patients – exploring the roles of previous experiences, memories, efficacy, screening patterns, and perceptions.
  4. An exploration of lost discourses and shared identities – a lasting legacy.
  5. Texting, teenagers, and the impact on human relationships.
  6. An explorative study of the relationships between mothers and grown-up daughters.
  7. How the relational, psychological, and general health of couples are impacted by repeated support interactions, with particular reference to rheumatic illnesses.
  8. Traditional versus online books for children of preschool age.
  9. The role of intervention methods in respect of starting and cessation patterns in people who smoke.
  10. How employee productivity is affected by the growth and expansion of the Internet.
  11. Imagine you are a mascot for a junior league baseball team – describe what the development and performance of daily routines might be like.
  12. Populist hegemony, technology, and rhetoric.
  13. The development of regulations relevant to text messaging with a view to reducing excessive drinking patterns.
  14. Understanding the art of narrative – the linguistic patterns and structure of the narrative genre.
  15. Getting to grips with everyday jargon relative to family health.
  16. How purchasing habits are shaped by the Internet.

Like such ideas? Check how to succeed in choosing the dissertation topic.

Economics Dissertation Topics

  1. How speculative markets have grown – the manner in which these have been impacted by an international approach.
  2. To what extent should Wall Street take the blame for the financial crisis of 2007/2008? An analysis of the events that led to this global crisis.
  3. How the economies in emerging markets are affected by capital inflows.
  4. Is it too risky to continue investing in Russia?
  5. Mining in Australia – the country’s financial salvation or a disaster for the future?
  6. Discuss the idea that we should not be unduly concerned by the UK’s government’s current level of debt since this is a debt owed to us.
  7. An analysis of the debt in Germany and the EU – is there a need for mutualization of this debt?
  8. Speculating about the future – has the time returned to go back to Keynesianism?
  9. An analysis of the reasons to incorporate bundling in business strategies.
  10. How the model of capital asset pricing is used in investment.
  11. Can the notion that an independent Scotland is non-viable from an economic perspective be defended?
  12. Critically analyze the idea of Central and Eastern European Countries becoming part of the EMU (European Monetary Union)
  13. What are the financial nuances and implications of China gaining a foothold in Africa?
  14. Is there a good reason to abandon the concept of national salary scales with particular reference to the lecturing and teaching professions?


Topics for a Dissertation on Education

  1. Applying new and better methods of teaching in formal learning environments – potential issues and obstacles.
  2. How to create an inspirational learning environment and using methods of learning that are effective.
  3. Innovating the current learning model – main concepts and approaches.
  4. Methods for improving career counseling in high schools.
  5. The notion of learning throughout life and the application of this concept in particular countries.
  6. Ways to apply the theory of motivation in classrooms.
  7. Key tendencies in the standard and quality of procedures for monitoring in education.
  8. Self-regulation among students participating in distance learning – study standards across cultures.
  9. Informal methods of learning in rural or small communities and the effectiveness of these.
  10. How adaptable are current educational standards to modern career requirements? An outline of the strong and weak points.
  11. The primary advantages of e-learning versus the traditional method of classroom teaching.
  12. Mental agility and muscularity – how theories concerning intelligence are shaped through metaphor.
  13. The ways in which education has been influenced by globalization – current challenges and trends.
  14. Effective informal learning methods used in small rural communities.
  15. Affective methods of corrective student feedback in online instruction and the impact of these variations on learner retention and satisfaction levels.
  16. The usefulness of social media and/or networking as an informal method of learning.
  17. The linking of vocabulary and imagery – improving scientific knowledge via various multimedia channels.
  18. Effective heuristics for facilitating the incorporation of simulations into school and college assignments.
  19. The motivational and cognitive impacts that learning to design games has on students at middle school level.
  20. Study two different methods of teaching complex concepts in terms of their effectiveness on student motivation, reasoning ability, and achievement.
  21. Working towards transforming the educational model – document the changing practices of institutions, professors, and students in the field of introductory-level physics.
  22. Characterize the role that instruction in the Arts has on the identity of individuals in black communities.
  23. Asynchronous discussions in online learning: How these facilitate learning, collaboration, self-efficacy, and engagement in blended learning environments.
  24. How the computer skills and learning abilities of students are affected by self-monitoring, achievement targets, and a goal-oriented approach.
  25. BIAR (beliefs/intentions/actions/reflections) – a fresh way of looking at the way students and teachers interact.
  26. Best ways to characterize, identify, and address gender inequalities in introductory-level physics in colleges.
  27. The nature and effectiveness of special educational policies across Europe.
  28. How negative attitudes on the part of students towards learning can be a problem.


Topics for a Dissertation on Leadership in Education

  1. Transforming how classrooms are managed – a study of newly qualified teachers who have shown themselves to be effective managers in the classroom.
  2. The experiences of minority students – bridges and barriers to acquiring an education in nursing.
  3. Coping with improvements to educational programs – a strong approach to improving schools.
  4. The success and resilience shown by American Indian students in community colleges – the bridges and barriers they face.
  5. How the professional careers of alumni are impacted by participating in the mini-corps.
  6. How the support and help services offered to transfer students in community colleges affects their readiness for graduation.
  7. The attitudes of principals towards including children with a variety of disabilities in lower-level (elementary level) education in some US states, with special reference to the state of California.
  8. How the leadership qualities of principals in elementary schools are impacted by cultural awareness and intelligence.
  9. The factors that impact the educational experiences of undergraduate seasonal farm-working and migrant students in the state of California’s capital city Sacramento.
  10. The factors that affect the almost-complete student population in the state of California – how to increase the number of degrees obtained.


Electrical Engineering Dissertation Topics

  1. Methods for generating green electrical power.
  2. Making electrical and electronic devices more efficient.
  3. Creating hardware to suit the software of the future.
  4. Would you say hybrid motorcars are the vehicles of the future?
  5. Finding ways to overcome natural disaster threats in projects that involve electrical engineering.
  6. What the future holds for the transmission of electricity.
  7. Engineering of equipment for the medical industry.
  8. Adapting current technologies to make the transmission of electricity more efficient.
  9. Semiconductors – how their electronic band structures are assembled.
  10. Improving programmable field devices to make them more adaptable.
  11. The use of various inverters for the performance of vital functions.


Dissertation Topics on Environmental Issues

The following sample dissertation topics cover environmental matters. This list has been created to assist you and provide you with inspiration.

  1. The worldwide problem of deforestation.
  2. A study of the world’s ecosystem – the situation in the 1990s compared with that of the 2000s.
  3. Detailed study of renewable energy in terms of its marketability.
  4. A step-by-step guide to increasing biodiversity in neighborhoods.
  5. The positive effects of lowering the rate of infestations of red mites in poultry – a survey of small-holdings.
  6. Safari services in Botswana – responding to stress in working elephants and monitoring their movements after release from care.
  7. A study of plant structures in forests that have been invaded by Alliaria Petiolata (garlic mustard).
  8. Generating and recycling of waste within households – a study of kerb-side collects in various cities and the potential impact of any changes to current arrangements.
  9. How the US ecosystem is negatively affected by nuclear waste.
  10. The statistical study of mortality rates as a result of environmental pollution.
  11. How the ecosystem in Europe is affected by climate change.
  12. Devise a plan for the development of effective city waste policies.
  13. How feasible are the use of roof-top wind turbines – use the example of Queen’s Medical Centre in Nottingham, UK as a basis for your survey.
  14. What is the best way to boost initiatives to reduce pollution in neighborhoods?
  15. How Arabian Sea creatures are impacted by climate change.
  16. How general health may be affected by potential pathogens in seafood.
  17. Study the environmental effects (and benefits) of managing and recycling garden waste. Use northern Oxfordshire as a case study example.
  18. A detailed examination of fluctuations in water levels in lakes during summer.
  19. A study of the primary problems that affect environmental protection and its associated science.


Management Dissertation Topics

The area of management is just a small aspect of a business studies course but a very important area. If you are a business student writing a thesis about management, it is worth looking at the following topics since one or more of them may be of interest to you:

  1. Resources-based business strategies – how companies leverage their own resources.
  2. A study of how virtual businesses have grown. Consider the strategies used in prominent e-commerce ventures such as Amazon and eBay for comparison purposes.
  3. How social conditions and competitiveness are improved by corporate practices.
  4. Factors that cause employees to deliberately act in an unethical way.
  5. Managing change in start-up businesses – using joined-up strategies and anticipating outcomes.
  6. What level of investment should a business make in its employees, and what level is excessive?
  7. Strategies for managing businesses and social media networks.
  8. What relationship exists between an employee’s commitment to the culture of the organization they work for and the culture of their nation?
  9. A holistic management approach – a detailed study of the role of strategies in problem resolution.
  10. Business integrity and how the language used by employees and employers to communicate influences integrity.
  11. How the alignment of personally-held values and business goals impact the performance of employees.
  12. How the commitment of employees is managed in not-for-profit organizations.
  13. How loyalty to customers is impacted by perception when it comes to CSR (corporate social responsibility).
  14. The utilization of leadership to enhance company competitiveness.
  15. How female members of a workforce are perceived by male members – a study of how workplaces are prone to adopting the stereotypical model of appointing males to leadership positions.
  16. Why employee motivation is important in businesses. Are motivational programs highly-effective or mere employee orientation tactics?
  17. A holistic approach to management – how strategic thought processes can be encouraged.
  18. Managing individuals with like characteristics can be advantageous – what are the primary advantages?
  19. How female employees are impacted by the stereotypical strategies of male leaders.
  20. Analyze the co-relationship between the financial performance and/or outcomes of corporate organizations and their levels of social and environmental responsibility.
  21. How best can managers evaluate employee performance – what performance measures are most reliable and/or effective?
  22. How is the cultural change within financial organizations impacted by feedback policies?
  23. How is the leadership in organizations affected by cultural and socio-economic diversity?
  24. How can employee motivation be improved without a company making a large monetary investment?
  25. How personal workplace relationships can be improved with higher levels of goal attainment.
  26. Should established businesses encourage and fund entrepreneurships?

The above topics are quite basic. You can easily add your own by creating topic ideas from the above or examining some case studies.

Event Management Dissertation Topics

  1. How much value do participants get from different events?
  2. Managing money – the science that goes into planning events on a tight budget.
  3. A history of the field of events management as a respected profession.
  4. Enhancing the overall experience of a particular event – using psychology to create and manage mood.
  5. How the role of events managers are affected by economics and the real-life effects of state-controlled resources.
  6. The preparation of food and the rules for feeding groups of any size.
  7. What is the best way to use marketing to generate enthusiasm and interest in an event that might otherwise seem to lack appeal?
  8. How events are shaped by their aesthetic elements and the artistic effort that goes into them.
  9. Creating the ideal event – how to use science to bring the right factors together to suit any type of occasion.
  10. How event participants can be impacted by a change of location.


Hospitality Management Dissertation Topics

  1. Using appropriate case studies, analyze how specialist software is used in the food departments of hospitals.
  2. Using a case study of the John Pappajohn Entrepreneurial Center, trace how this enterprise was developed and implemented.
  3. Explore the push and pull motivations of the entrepreneurs who make and sell quilts in rural shops in the state of Iowa.
  4. Why tourists are motivated to visit dark tourist sites and what their intentions are.
  5. Why black designers of fashion are important – carry out a qualitative research of black designers of women’s fashions and their experiences as entrepreneurs.
  6. What role does the gaming sector play in times of economic crisis and what is the social and economic impact of this industry during such times?
  7. How is volunteerism impacted by place and festival attachments and motivation? Understanding the volunteer’s perspective using a case study of a famous film festival.


Marketing Dissertation Topics

Topics related to marketing are extremely popular, not least because a great many students elect to study marketing with a view to getting a degree in this field. Obtaining such a degree requires the writing of a high-quality dissertation. This task is not as simple as you might think and your paper will need to be good to attract a high grade. Your choice of topic is just as important since this will determine how effective and interesting your dissertation is. Below are some topic ideas to get you in the right frame of mind.

  1. Should consumers have better forums for spotting marketing tricks and gimmicks?
  2. The various marketing techniques and strategies used by big names in the e-commerce world.
  3. Building long-lasting brand images.
  4. What recent advances in technology have really helped boost marketing methods?
  5. Define what brand identity is, how to create it, and how it should be marketed?
  6. How are marketing methods helped by filtering?
  7. To improve their marketing strategies, are businesses using every possible resource available to them?
  8. Can a company boost its brand image by having international status or are consumers more likely to use local stores?
  9. Where might the marketing industry go in the future, say, over the next two decades?
  10. What is the best way of marketing brands in communities that do not understand the concepts or notions behind the brand?
  11. Would you say that personal recommendation is a more effective marketing method than social media or vice versa?
  12. Would you agree or disagree with the notion that technology has increased consumer gullibility where marketing industry gimmicks are concerned?
  13. Effective ways of encouraging compulsive buying on the part of consumers.
  14. Is it ethical for companies to buy and use words from people’s private conversations in their marketing campaigns?
  15. Would you say that old-world marketing techniques are enjoying a revival because consumers like personal interactions?
  16. Would you say that people are being robbed of privacy as a result of marketing on social media?
  17. What are the best ways of branching out a business?
  18. Should companies write their own feedback and reviews to bring in customers?
  19. Would you agree that the Internet is keeping the costs of marketing down and helping start-up businesses compete alongside market leaders?
  20. How have the marketing techniques that have prevailed for decades been changed by the emergence of the Internet?
  21. Described the various strategies that big names in the e-commerce world use for marketing their products and services.


Music Dissertation Topics

The topics below are examples you may wish to use for a dissertation about music:

  1. The participation of boys in upper elementary education in group music sessions in co-educational and same-sex classes.
  2. An exploration of how imagery is used by vocal musicians –the application of a sports psychology approach.
  3. An evaluation of the selection and valuation of music materials for groups of learners from different cultures and backgrounds in global settings.
  4. Your perception of the effective preparation for and teaching of a general music class in an urban elementary setting. An analysis of the work of teachers from different cultures in a range of culturally diverse settings.
  5. How musical programs originated in institutions teaching the liberal arts. Choose three universities in Florida as the basis of your case study.
  6. Describe the relationship that exists between perceived competence, autonomous support, and the persistence undergraduate music students apply to assigned tasks.
  7. The influence a band director’s personality and teaching style has on the ratings at concerts and marching band musical events.


Topics for a Dissertation on Prosthodontics

  1. Longevity rates for endodontic therapies after placement of crowns.
  2. Compare these treatments: anterior dentures made from templates based on tooth molds and definitive CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) fully removable artificial dentures.
  3. An examination of Die Trim Morphology created by Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing.
  4. How the bending aspects of orthodontic wires made from cobalt/chromium are affected by heat treatments.
  5. Discrepancies in arch length and cephalometric size based on visual estimates.
  6. How the color of commercial resins made from various photoinitiators change and what causes these changes.
  7. Compare the results of primary endodontic treatments when provided by specialists in this field to the results of these treatments when they are administered by other dental providers.
  8. How human periodontal ligament cell differentiation and inflammation response is affected by mechanical vibration.
  9. An evaluation of the thermal components of the clear alignment systems that are widely used upon receipt and after use for clinical purposes.


Psychology Dissertation Topics

The prospect of selecting a good topic for a dissertation on psychology can often feel quite daunting. Still, once you understand where to search for topic ideas and you become adept at narrowing these down to an idea you like, it should be possible to choose an excellent topic in very little time. Understanding where to find topics is the first step and here is a comprehensive list to get you started.

  1. What are the primary factors that have caused an increase in attention deficiency disorders in school children?
  2. Kleptomania is generally classed as a psychological ailment. How is this so?
  3. The abuse of spouses in indigenous groups of people.
  4. The theory of attachment – the history of this theory and the re-defining it has undergone in the last twenty years.
  5. The role that scent and its allure play in attracting people to each other.
  6. How the social lives of high school students are affected by anxiety disorders, especially by social anxieties.
  7. Does the bond between humans and animals really help relieve the symptoms of depression?
  8. Seven-step programs are often used to cure addictions. Are these programs really effective?
  9. Laughter is said to be a great medicine. Is this true?
  10. A look at personality disorders, especially those of an excessively dramatic nature.
  11. Does group-style therapy continue to be effective in helping with the recovery from alcoholism?
  12. The increase in suicide rates among teenagers.
  13. Is nature or is nurture responsible for bipolar disorder?
  14. How are children affected psychologically by beauty pageants?
  15. Should there be an extension to the support services available to the victims of sexual assault?
  16. Are people in all age groups equally susceptible to the subliminal messages in advertisements?
  17. How are the learning habits of children affected by music, with specific reference to children in the pre-school age group?
  18. The latest advances in short-term memory improvement and their effectiveness.


Topics for a Dissertation on Public Administration and Policy

  1. How investment in the US natural gas generator industry is impacted by innovation and policies concerning the environment.
  2. Using technology and innovation transfer to expand the use of renewable energy.
  3. Public purchasing and procurement policies.
  4. Innovative solutions to mitigating natural hazards and expanding the adaptation of climate change.
  5. Use case studies to explore the approach to developing policing policies in Liberia, Kosovo, and Timor-Leste.
  6. Explain how wind power technology has changed in the USA and China in terms of the role played by collaboration, increased technology know-how, and policies on energy usage.
  7. How long-term health care is provided to America’s elderly citizens.
  8. An analysis of the TAG (Technical Assistance Grant) program in terms of who is involved in it, what participants achieve, and what they hope to achieve.
  9. Urban development and regeneration policies.
  10. Charter schools – the unintentional effects of these programs.
  11. Taking the word of non-profit making organizations – Mission versus conflict when it comes to dealing with organizational changes and responding to environmental challenges.
  12. India: The reality and illusion of bureaucratic and collaboration politics.
  13. Achieving a policy on long-term healthcare insurance out of social security funding for the American public.
  14. The role information technology plays in India in the implementation of policy on maternal healthcare benefits.
  15. The motives in public services – the origins, history, and consequences.


Sociology Dissertation Topics

  1. Communication at a social level is essential in an organizational context. Analyze the scope of social communication in a corporate organization.
  2. In what ways could the public school education system in the UK reduce the educational gap for those who are currently marginalized?
  3. The world has been overtaken by social change. Consider this notion with specific reference to the connection between religion and social change.
  4. Consider the Marx conflict theory concerning education alongside the public school system in the UK. How do the sociology aspects of this concept underpin the Marx theory?
  5. Based on a research of life in America and Africa, what gender-related issues affect both societies and what is the impact of these?
  6. Based on an analysis of Mark Webber’s theory on rationalism, explain how this relates to the UK’s societal structure.
  7. UK culture has been diffused by immigration. Considering the different cultures in modern Britain, do you think the UK has succeeded in maintaining its own culture?
  8. How has the global economic crisis of 2007/2008 negatively affected the UK’s economy and what impact has it had on the socioeconomic strata of the country’s labor market.
  9. In order for different religious groups to co-exist peacefully, it is necessary to have interfaith accords. Explain some of the grounds where such accords facilitate peaceful co-existence.
  10. Describe in detail the social structure of a typical UK corporation.
  11. Critically evaluate how society norms are changing in Britain by comparing modern UK culture with the culture of past decades.
  12. How does the institution of marriage compare in Indian and American societies?
  13. Analyze the dimensions and trends in gender-based voting patterns in Britain and America.
  14. How do labor market trends and practices compare in the UK and Asia?
  15. Looking at popular culture in the UK today compared to a hundred years ago, what notable changes have taken place?


Topics for a Dissertation on Sports and Sports Psychology

Most students are fond of sports and find writing about them a pleasure. It is a subject that does not require endless research and the reading of countless books since most of the information you need can be found on the Internet. If, of course, your topic concerns the psychology side of sports, you will need to look through your psychology books but this is something you should be well able to manage. The following are some great topics for a dissertation on sports and sports psychology:

  1. How to use positive thought to your advantage in sport.
  2. Does losing at sport means a loss of all confidence? Does one failure affect the next performance?
  3. The awesome power of a team anthem. Why it is essential for teams to have symbols and anthems of their own.
  4. The essential qualities in professional athletes. What is required to succeed in sport?
  5. Top tips for avoiding anxiety.
  6. Should teams have leaders? How important is this?
  7. A description of stadium reactions. Include some photos of fans supporting their team and make an effort to interpret the expressions on their faces.
  8. Is the encouragement of fans important and how crucial is it?
  9. What can a coach do to ensure collaboration among team players in a positive way and thereby prevent problems?
  10. What types of players have the potential to play at the professional level? Is it possible to tell this before joining a team?
  11. Can physical stamina and strength be influenced by the strength of mind?
  12. The use of psychological games to improve performance. Is it possible for this to be effective for a beginner?
  13. Can player performance be increased or reduced by stress?
  14. What rules apply to forming new teams? What do leaders or managers need to take into account?
  15. How sports events have the potential to influence players’ attitudes.
  16. Should sports clubs provide psychological support and/or counseling for players?
  17. How can athletes improve their self-esteem and self-confidence if they are not confident in their own abilities?
  18. Do sports have the potential to help people connect better than other types of communication?
  19. How supporters react when the team they follow wins.
  20. Do the players of tough or violent sports need to possess any unique mental powers or abilities?


Sports Management Dissertation Topics

  1. Ways to manage essential safety principles in professional level football.
  2. What are the primary problems concerning ethics in modern sports?
  3. In what way do the approaches to leadership in sport differ between the genders?
  4. Describe the most successful coaching strategies.
  5. How does the training of a team of players differ from training one individual sportsperson?
  6. The problems and opportunities associated with communities of sports fans.
  7. Analyze the different coaching methods as these apply from country to country.
  8. List the best tools for improving the quality of play in a team.
  9. What are the primary risks in managing the different types of the sport?


Topics for a Dissertation on Telecommunications

  1. New communications model using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) techniques for regulating radio frequencies, with particular reference to use in Kosovo.
  2. Limitations on frequencies in CDMA mobile networks.
  3. Constrained and localized non-linear control in automated systems.
  4. Restrictions on secondary transmission operations in the video game Uplink.
  5. Analyzing the time-reliant performance of a wireless network.
  6. Developing a coordinated method for monitoring cross-network traffic with a view to detecting DDoS flood attacks early on.
  7. How out-of-order already-delivered Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packets are impacted by scheduled load-based NIC teaming (or bonding).
  8. Improving the availability of content in P2P (peer-to-peer) networks – a holistic incentive and redundancy-based framework.
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