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Social Psychology

The paper discusses three important concepts in psychology: self-esteem, self-perception, and cultural diversity in the context of three articles. Self-esteem is the self-value or self-respect. According to Belanger et al. (2016), there are certain connections between the self-esteem concept and marital adjustment. The differences between the Asians and the Europeans exist in the way they perceive themselves from the cultural point of view, which is discussed by Kim et al., Chiu, Cho, Au, and Kwak (2014). Finally, Taylor and Kachanoff (2015) state that cultural diversity defines the cooperation between cultures and national images. The findings show that the immigrants adapt quickly and prevail over the dominant culture. This paper is aimed at the analysis of these articles.

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Self-Esteem

In the article “Self-Esteem, Coping Efforts and Marital Adjustment,” Belanger et al. (2016) demonstrate the connections between the self-esteem, coping efforts, and marital adjustment. They use the questionnaire and the analysis in his study. The scholars state that there is a relation between marital adjustments and self-esteem. The latter is the individual’s self-worth or personal evaluation. It is a stable personality trait, and every individual has it high, low or balanced. This concept includes the variety of values, beliefs, and the behavior stereotypes.

Belanger et al. (2016) claim that the self-respect is also the belief in the success in our aspirations. One should not confuse the self-value with self-efficacy, which presupposes the belief in future abilities and actions. The authors’ argument is that the concept of self-respect is an important tool to succeed for an ambitious and highly motivated person. Due to the low self-esteem, the individuals lose the opportunities and hide their full potential. In contrast, the narcissism may destroy the relationships with close people and bring failures at work. The extremely high or low self-esteem may also be harmful for the identification of an individual (Belanger et al., 2016). If someone admits his/her mistakes and criticizes his/her own work too much, he/she has low self-esteem. Moreover, the personalities with high self-value are not afraid to express their opinions and ideas on public as well as discuss vulnerable topics. People strive for the balance between high and low self-value.

From the perspective of Belanger et al. (2015), there are three main parts of the issue. The self-respect is inevitable for human survival and gradual development (Belanger et al., 2016). This topic bases on people emotions and feelings. Finally, the personal evaluation faces the actions and thoughts of certain individual. The main factor, which influences the self-value, is the experience. The situations, which the individuals meet with, change their view and perception of themselves. A family and close friends also have an impact on the self-respect. They may both boost it or lower. The Maslow’s hierarchy represents the self-esteem as the motivation for success. People need the external and internal evaluation. These factors lead to the great achievements.

Belanger et al. (2016) draw the conclusion that there are specific relationships between the self-esteem and marital adjustments. The findings demonstrate that a low level of partner’s commitment tends to evolve from the poor self-respect of a person of the opposite gender. Also, if the self-value of the couple is mutual, both partners benefit from these relationships (Belanger et al., 2016). A spouse with high self-esteem usually chooses a woman with the same feature. He believes that she will help him to succeed in life. The authors argue that the relationship between the self-esteem and coping efforts exists. The study illustrates the connection between problem-solving skills and high self-value. For instance, women use the avoidance technique and seek the support from families and friends. This result demonstrates poor marital adjustment as well as low self-esteem. The main finding is that the marital adjustment, specific coping efforts, and self-esteem are connected.

Self-Perception

Kim et al. (2014) explore the cross-cultural difference in self-perception. The scholars use the comparative method analyzing the Europeans and the Asians. In addition, he discusses the self-perception theory, the role and differences of this concept in various nations. Self-perception is related to the observance of one’s behavior. This issue is based on person’s own opinion and the views of other people (Kim et al., 2014). The cross-cultural differences concerning self-perception concept exist. For instance, the European Americans take the first-person perspective and do not consider the viewpoints of others. In contrast, Asians perceive the opinions and judgments of other people more comprehensively. This finding does not see the European Americans as passive interlocutors and the Asians as active ones. The study only highlights the activeness of the Asians and their readiness to accept alien points of view.

One can also observe the differences between the Western and Asian cultures and traditions discussed by Kim et al. (2014). Western people do not accept the opposite opinions about their personality and see themselves from their own points of view. The other judgements are not included into their identity portrait. These individuals tend to be less stressed and nervous (Kim et al., 2014). In comparison, the author concludes that the Asians appreciate interdependence, interrelation, and harmony. They judge themselves from other points of view. As a result, the Asians are more involved in social interaction. They combine personal look and others’ thoughts.

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The scholars claim that the self-perception theory consists of two components. People learn their principles, beliefs, and attitudes (Kim et al., 2014). In addition, when internal signals are weak, an individual becomes the outside observer. As a result, with the help of behavior and external circumstances, people change their opinions and accept or deny certain beliefs. The authors conclude that this theory illustrates the fact that individuals lack emotional responses. As a result, they develop their personal opinions concerning various issues. The emotions and attitudes to certain objects control their actions.

Self-perception plays an essential role in the society. It serves as social identifier where the achievements from the others’ points of view are important (Kim et al., 2015). Europeans are more aware of their personal outlooks. They do not consider the opinions of others while the Asians build their identities with the help of the views of the others. In this case, the self-estimation may serve as an essential factor in the determination of an individual’s social worth. The Asians highlight the self-improvement and humility. Thus, the scholar assumes that Asian children accept and appreciate the criticism more often than praise (Kim et al. 2014). Their parents usually have low self-esteem. Due to this fact, they lower the level of positivity and become too critical to themselves. However, such people may experience different self-views because of the irrelevance of the other self-perceptions.

In comparison, parents’ attitude does not affect the views of the European Americans. They possess the perceptions that are more favorable and combine their images with the opinions of other people regardless of parents’ attitudes. The Americans preserve such issues as self-consistency, psychological independence, and high level of self-esteem. The scholar’s assumption is that they maintain the positive image in various situations as well as keep the freedom of thoughts (Kim et al., 2014). The opinions of other people do not restrict the Americans. They protect their freedom and ignore the judgments of other people. The scientists conclude that the Asians incorporate the others’ views into their personal identities as well as know the differences between themselves and their parents. They are ready to change opinions and accept the criticism. However, it depends on the situation. Consequently, the Europeans are less sensitive to the criticism (Kim et al., 2014).

Cultural Diversity

Taylor and Kachanoff, (2015) observe the cultural diversity without clearly defined cultural identity. They use the descriptive scientific method to study the citizenship and the cultural vacuum. The scholars state that cultural diversity is the concept, which defines the differences between the majority and minority (Taylor & Kachanoff, 2015). In the article, it is emphasized that the personal space, eye contact, distance, and body language and style are different in every culture. Therefore, the cultural stereotypes and misconceptions exist across the civilizations. Cultural diversity makes the world different and rich. People are the world citizens with the particular culture, traditions, mentality, national images, and beliefs.

The main claim of the authors is that the multiculturalism and the relativity are bound. The scientists distinguish the vertical and horizontal multiculturalism (Taylor & Kachanoff, 2015). Regarding the vertical one, the groups are different in cultural aspects, power, and status. In contrast, the communities are equal in status and power in the horizontal one. These groups try to adapt in the multinational and multicultural environments such as Canada, the United States or Australia. They also tend to demonstrate their cultural domains and ignore dominant cultures.

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The cultural vacuum underestimates the force of the cultural attack. The slavery and colonization influenced the cultural diversity (Taylor & Kachanoff, 2015). In certain situations, the colonizers respect the integral cultural identity but in the majority of cases, this process is devastating due to the absence of respect to social, cultural, and spiritual aspects of foreign lifestyle. Cultural vacuum states that the colonized communities have their own identities and still are under pressure. They may face the difficulties concerning personal and collective originality. The main finding is that many cultures experienced the discrimination and failed to participate in the social life of communities. In fact, the new-coming cultures accommodate better and display psychological resistance to the dominant one.

In conclusion, the self-esteem, self-perception, and cultural diversity are among the most important issues in the psychology. Everybody has high, low or balanced self-esteem. One perceives oneself in a different way than anyone else does. People create their images by reflecting both their own experience and the actions of the others. The cultural diversity creates the conditions, in which the individuals perceive themselves in various ways.

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