This paper investigates five distributed articles that cover results in finding out the main problem of racial profiling by the police and developing the main recommendations on how to solve this challenge. A former examination has reliably shown the notability of the minority status in understanding racial and ethnic contrasts in the police impression. This examination has overwhelmingly demonstrated that Blacks, Latinos, and Arabs hold lower levels than Whites and other racial minorities. The expanded incredulity of the police communicated by minority subjects is usually connected with racial profiling and recorded racial differences in police conduct. The paper evaluates Eric Garner`s Case and Ferguson’s Case. The research presents great cruelty by the police towards the national minorities. The information utilized from the book by Alpert, MacDonald, and Dunham (2005) devoted to the police racial profiling connected to the reason for this study. The main aim was to look at whether racial variety in assessments of police conduct is directed by the race of an officer. The outcomes recommend that the officer’s race may cause a vital native impression of police stops, especially in terms of Black natives. This finding is critical. It gives some confirmation that the number of minority officers may be one suitable alternative for enhancing citizen – officer relationships.
In a multicultural society, the good inter-ethnic relations and integration of persons depend on all ethnic governmental action groups’ perceptions. Specifically, the part of the police as a line and most visible law enforcement agency is crucial. The police duty is to provide clear access to justice for minorities. Minorities who perceive the police as a body, which fairly enforces the law and provides access to the right and safety community, are likely to be respected in the state. A police failure can result in resentment and fear among minorities, as well as promote an extremism climate. The police acceptance as effective national, regional or local legitimate force depends on how well a relationship of trust and loyalty between the minorities and the police has been established.
The governments need to demonstrate leadership by setting a clear vision of the police role in building and sustaining an effective democratic multi-ethnic society. They should widely consult to achieve a multi-party and multi-ethnic consensus on their policies on policing (Farrell & Warren, 2009). Otherwise, a socially divisive or political struggle may occur. The policies and measures needed to implement should be expressed in the clear formal policy statements.
Policing should be a part of a wider national strategy in order to promote integration and build a multi-ethnic society. It should include measures to promote the participation of people belonging to the national minorities in the political and economic life of the country. The measures should be taken in the field of political representation, language, education, tackling poverty, and broadcasting (Farrell & Warren, 2009). The broader aspects of integration will facilitate the implementation of measures necessary to ensure policing in the multi-society.
Racial profiling has not been demonstrated as a compelling policing strategy. It does not effectively battle criminal conflicts or terrorism since people are wrongly targeted, detained, and grilled. Racial profiling additionally advances criticism about law authorization and the legal framework amongst individuals from minority groups. They are subjected to racial profiling, subsequently diminishing the likelihood of resident participation with legitimate examinations.
Background of the Issue
According to experts (Glaser, 2014), the term national minorities encompasses a range of groups of minorities, including religious, linguistic, cultural as well as ethnic. The recommendations in a principle are applied to all groups. The term minority is used in the recommendations as a convenient abbreviation for the phrase “people belonging to the national minorities.”
The recommendations aimed to provide practical advice on the country`s policy development and legislation in line with international standards. They are based on international experience and the best practices that can balance. They meet the needs and interests of all groups, including people belonging to national minorities (Alpert, MacDonald, & Dunham, 2005). The recommendations need to be implemented taking into account the specific situation in each country and including such factors as the ongoing process of the police reform and the actual situation on the ground.
The good policing in multi-ethnic societies depends on the establishing of confident relationships. They are built on regular communication and practical cooperation between the police and minorities.
The policing policy towards minorities should be a component of (clearly defined and motivated) police programs. The good communication and cooperation based on trust is a key to effective policing, for both: in relation to the basic populations and on minorities. The repressive or controlling approach (Farrell & Warren, 2009), where basic rights are ignored or violated cannot create an environment for good relations between the police and minorities. The democratization and professionalization of the police are the essential prerequisites to build a successful democratic multi-ethnic society, as well as the implementation of the police activity and approaches to public services, based on human rights.
Ms. Graf from Amnesty International (Glaser, 2014) has criticized the fact that the police in Switzerland regularly monitor only African Americans. The reason is that just of the color of their skin. We are always notified that blacks were unfounded by the police mainly by the force. The number of cases connected to police cruelty to national minorities had decreased during the past ten years. Stakeholders complained several times a week. However, this figure is not representative. Many blacks do not report such incidents. It is a taboo to testify against the police for them. They worry about losing a residence permit. Moreover, most cantons do not place statistics on police violence. It makes quantification that this phenomenon is difficult to analyze.
OSCE Policy on Preventing Racial Profiling
In 2006, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) announced the position of the High Commissioner for National Minorities (HCNM). This position has become an instrument of prevention conflicts at the earliest possible stages. The creation of this office was largely due to the situation in the former country of Yugoslavia (Alpert, MacDonald, & Dunham, 2005). Many countries saw a high risk of repeating Yugoslavia’s scenario (racial discrimination) in other European countries, especially those, which performed some transition to democracy.
After more than ten years of intense activity, the HCNM has identified a number of issues and topics concerning minorities. Among them, there was the issue of education for minorities and the use of minority languages. They have had a special influence on the identity development of people belonging to national minorities. Other important problems were the effective participation of minorities in the government and the use of minority languages as a means of communication in the broadcast media. In order to achieve an appropriate and consistent application of the relevant minority rights, the HCNM has asked four internationally recognized groups to elaborate on four guidance sets (Alpert, MacDonald, & Dunham, 2005).
Another issue that arose repeatedly in a course of the HCNM was the process of policing in multi-ethnic societies. In some countries, the HCNM has encountered the absence of institutional mechanisms in order to support interaction and cooperation between police and people belonging to the national minorities (Alpert, MacDonald, & Dunham, 2005). Having the lack of appropriate training in a multinational society surrounding, mono-ethnic composition and discriminatory practice the police have generated negative reactions from national minorities. Some of them even have faced a conflict with the police. In contrast, in other countries, the HCNM has seen how efforts, aimed to bring up the police service and enhance the communication between police and minorities. It not only strengthened the ethnic relations but also increased police operational effectiveness. The HCNM has begun a process of international standards analysis and practices in the field of law enforcement. For this purpose, the OSCE appointed a consultant (Glaser, 2014) and formed a team of qualified experts. This crew included representatives of international organizations, independent experts, senior police, and non-governmental organizations’ representatives to work in this field. As a result, a plan of recommendations for the police in a multi-ethnic society has been developed.
Eric Garner`s Case
The jury found no grounds for bringing to the justice New York’s police officer Daniel Pantaleo. That summer, he strangled a black man named Eric Garner. The board explained its decision by the insufficient number of grounds for a criminal case against a white policeman. Eric Garner, weighing more than 150 pounds, was arrested by the police of New York in July on the suspicion of illegal trade. The man was suffering from asthma. He was trying to resist but one of the policemen, Daniel Pantaleo, in order to pacify, cupped his hand around his neck. At some point, Garner croaked that he could not breathe. Sometime later he died. However, the jury decided that Pantaleo should not be blamed for the death of the black man. The lawyer Jonathan Moore, who was representing the interests of the family Garner, said he had been struck by this decision (Glaser, 2014).
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On August 21, on the Internet, there appeared the footage of the US police who killed a 23-year-old African-American Kai Powell. According to law enforcement officers, the young man behaved in an unpredictable way. They had to use their weapons. The law enforcement officers fired about 10 shots. The incident occurred on August 19 in the afternoon. Two police officers arrived at the emergency call from the shop owner, who had reported about the robbery (Glaser, 2014). When the suspended person was asked by the officers about the presence of weapons, he rushed toward them. Later, the police chief of St. Louis told at the news conference of the following thing. A man tried to attack the police with a knife, they ordered him to stop, but he did not listen. However, the eyewitness of the murder, Doris Davis, doubts that the young man had a knife. The woman said that the police had an opportunity to shoot his leg or to use tear gas. However, there was no such need to kill him.
Thus, there are many other cases that appear in the news about racial profiling and a negative attitude to the national minorities. The researches underline the greater cruelty in the police job regarding national minorities. Langstrasse and Large Hill in Bern are still the two critical points where black people are systematically being controlled. In addition, African Americans are mainly suspended in drug dealing (Farrell & Warren, 2009). Arab multinational people also claim about the intense unjustified police checks. First, with the global fight against terrorism, the attention of the police to this nationality has increased. Secondly, the arrival of young Tunisians is associated with the Arab Spring (Glaser, 2014). Therefore, the police should follow clearly some instructions on how to eliminate the conflicts which occurred with the national minorities.
Various Points on Racial Profiling
Numerous individuals from minority gather the country over. They have a long time ago guaranteed that the police normally utilized petty criminal offenses as the affection to stop a vehicle to research other conceivable unlawful acts, for example, drug or weapons infringement.
In a few later episodes, the exact confirmation confirms some cases of the presence of critical racial profiling, at any rate in the few wards. There the information is accessible to test these attestations. Likewise, a later investigation of activity stops in Maryland from 1995 to 1997 uncovered that the following fact. However, dark drivers made up just 17.5 percent of drivers on specific roadways, they formed more than 72 percent of drivers ceased also looked by the Maryland State Police. Yet an alternate study in four huge Ohio urban areas has uncovered that dark drivers are two to three times as prone to be ticketed as white ones. However, by the American Civil Liberties Union in Illinois, the research has demonstrated that the following fact. In spite of this case, Hispanics make up fewer than 8 percent of the state’s populace. They were 27 percent of those halted and sought by a parkway drug ban unit (Cole, 1999). At last, the US General Accounting Office (GAO), a congressional exploration org, as of late has reported the following finding. Due to the travelers coming back to the US, airplane terminals on global flights amid 1997 and 1998 chosen by traditions authorities for individual quests as an unbalanced number of African American ladies had been subjected to more obtrusive pursuits; i.e., strip quests and x-rays. In a few circumstances, claims have been documented guaranteeing racial profiling in police stops. The rundown of litigants in these suits incorporates an extensive variety of law implementation offices, including though not constrained to the accompanying. It includes such as the Maryland State Police, the New Jersey State Police, the U.S. Traditions Service, the Philadelphia Police Department, and the police divisions in three Illinois urban communities: Mt. Prospect, Highland Park, and Hillside (Cole, 1999). At long last, the developing production of narrative data underpins the affirmation that racial profiling is broad widely.
Ethics of Care
The country should adopt policies that clearly recognize the importance of policing for inter-ethnic relations. It should be a part of wider policies and programs of the minorities’ integration on the national and local levels. They also should be coordinated with wider actions in order to promote professionalism. The police and quality of its services are to ensure the implementation of all human rights, in particular, the rights of people belonging to the minorities. The country should ensure that the aim of the police is to strength the inter-ethnic relations. In addition, the police should have special tools to fulfill this role (Zimring, 2006). The political and police leaders should publicly state their support for the role of the police and promote understanding of this part to the public. The public authorities and the police, in close consultation with representatives of the minorities, need to develop an action plan to implement these policies, as well as monitor their implementation on a regular basis (Farrell & Warren, 2009).
Recruitment and Representation
The police staff, at the local, regional and national levels, including senior as well as junior ranks, and civilian personnel, should reflect the diversity of the population. It is necessary to actively promote a public image of the police as an ethnically representative body. It should be implemented as the monitoring of the ethnic composition of the police with a view measure progress. There should be initiatives to increase the recruitment of underrepresented minorities. These should include special measures in order to encourage the submission of applications for a job and contribute to candidates to achieve the required standards. They together with actions should involve eliminating any direct or indirect discriminatory barriers (Zimring, 2006). The measures should be taken as well to ensure the equal treatment of police officers from a minority within the police organization. It should provide a neutral working environment and have equal opportunities to advance their careers.
Training and Professional Development
The police need to receive training and other forms of professional support required to understand and appropriately respond to the sensitivity of minorities and their effective implementation role. It should be done in order to promote harmony in the areas and reduce tensions. It is recommended that training on minority and ethnic relations both in a primary police training program and the program training courses’ personnel of all ranks should be involved as minorities in both the planning and delivery process of training (Zimring, 2006). The police conduct codes should include professional standards for policing in multi-ethnic societies. Police training programs should include specific components designed. Breaches of these standards should be taken into disciplinary action. The exemplary practice should receive professional and public recognition. It is recommended to create the mechanisms of democratic accountability. They should include effective systems of complaints and their accessible proceedings to the minorities. All groups should be informed of their rights and responsibilities in relation to the police.
It is necessary to take measures to impartial and non-discriminatory police enforce of the law, which does not single out any particular group, such as racial profiling. Such actions should include codes of operational practices, such as the use of police powers to stop and search people in streets and other public places (Grogger & Ridgeway, 2006). The police officers should be in a constant process of encouraging people belonging to the national minorities and taking steps on improving the relationships between the community and the police. It will result in strengthening access to justice and safety. Undertaking regular or irregular patrols in the areas, where the majority of the population is the people belonging to national minorities, the police should implement mixed police teams with many nationalities included. These measures will build confidence in the public and increase the efficiency in the operational work. Another step that should be done is to ensure that the police appearance and tactics (visibility weapons, numbers, and choice of uniforms) are appropriate to the aims they have and do not lead to tension and fear unnecessarily. The police need to ensure effective and decisive use of anti-discrimination legislation.
Conflict Preventing and Resolution
Thus, it is curial to have special police training and organize the police. It should be done in such a way they could always take an initiative in establishing a friendly and positive relationship with the people belonging to the national minorities. In addition, it will be relevant to identify and reduce tension, which results in ethnic conflicts (Grogger & Ridgeway, 2006). The police should perceive the professional training for the purpose of conflicts of de-escalation and a needed solution finding through the minimal force use and mediation. The police should closely collaborate with other public authorities, in particular, at the local level. It will coordinate their activities in resolving and preventing conflicts with wider measures. These structures, as well, will integrate minorities into the collaboration with the police and build a successful multi-ethnic society.
The administration of people in a general request is a key obligation of the police in an equitable state. In the multi-ethnic nation, the plain ethnic clash is a greatly genuine open issue. It undermines the very establishments of social solidarity. In this manner, the capacity of the police to oversee and resolve such episodes of the general population problem is basic. It is essential to keep up the prosperity of the multi-ethnic culture. The police are responsible for an operation aimed to restore order and settle manifestations of the ethnic conflict. To operate successfully the police should receive appropriate training. For these purposes, the detailed codes of practice should be developed. Managing incidents in the inter-ethnic conflict the police should not only be technically efficient. However, they have to maintain legitimacy. They should always act in accordance with internationally recognized human rights standards. The forced use by the police is a crucial issue nowadays. Although the police have the right under the law to use force to resolve the overt conflicts. It is necessary to use the minimum amount of force only in resorting to difficult conflicts. The force used should be a professional capacity. A great alternative can become mediation. It should be developed as clear guidelines for the circumstances under which the use of force is justified and the detailed procedures on how it should be done. The police must always remember that an integral activity of the total context of international relations is an integral part of a continuous social and political process of democracy. All government agencies are responsible for the regulation of the public conflicts within the state and have a decisive influence on the subsequent development of ethnic relations and the future of the state, as a whole. In this regard, the police’s ability to maintain the trust of all ethnic groups whilst managing conflicts and restoring public procedure is extremely important. If the performance of the police role is biased, the legitimacy in the eyes of minorities will be destroyed. Therefore, it is important for all police officers to act professionally fair in an ethnic conflict regardless of ethnic background. Other authorities also need to lead in addressing the underlying causes of conflicts. The long term education and particular programs can bring together young people from different groups and play a crucial role in management. Since it is important to address these issues at the local level, a major role is paid to the local governments.
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