Society suffers from various pandemics that affect the lives of many people. Atrial fibrillation disorder remains no exception due to its extreme impact on patients. Many people experience heart problems that make it necessary for the health department to develop a new method in reaction. However, it is worth appreciating the efforts that health sectors have shown in combating the calamity. It is because of such challenges that the paper finds reviewing literature in this field essential. Many authors have contributed to performing research and developing texts in this area of knowledge. Therefore, the paper has reviewed some of the articles with clear information concerning the area. Most of the articles show that there have been serious investigations into this field. The review also isolates some areas that need adjustments concerning the management of atrial fibrillation patients. All this information calls for more research in this area to provide more guidelines on handling such patients.

Atrial-Fibrillation Literature Review

The heart condition has posed various challenges to society for centuries. Many people have succumbed to heart attacks of different forms. Atrial fibrillation is one of the heart conditions that remain a threat to many individuals in society. It refers to an irregular heart rate and frequently involves the organ beating very quickly. The condition is also known as AF or Afib. Whether the AF is stable or unstable depends on the rapid ventricular rate (RVR). When the rate is greater than 100beats/min, the condition becomes unstable. Then, it is called tachyarrhythmia. However, when the heart rate is extremely rapid, it leads to instability of the patient. In reaction to this condition, many scholars have performed a series of researches to allow for an adequate diagnosis of the disease. The literature remains relevant since it provides an insight into handling of the Afib disorder. Therefore, the paper presents a review of several pieces of literature that have explored atrial fibrillation and its management.

Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: The task force of the ESC by Camm et al. (2010) provides a detailed research regarding the atrial fibrillation disorder. As a result, this paper finds literature to be relevant to the review. In their presentation, the authors present an evaluation of the current status of the Afib. Moreover, they provide details concerning physicians selecting the best management strategy to assist the patient suffering from the disorder. They also clarify the impact outcome and the risk-benefit ratios regarding a particular means of diagnosis or therapy that medical officers intend to use. In their presentation, they ascertain that the AF occurs in 1-2% of the general population. Their analysis also contains the possibility of the disorder increasing its impact in the next fifty years. The authors also associate the problem with many cases of strokes in the society. The point proves to be vital since it is aimed at making the physician to understand the need to examine conditions of the stroke caused by atrial fibrillation.

The literature is relevant since it further explores frustrations that clinicians have undergone when attending to cases of the AF. As a result, they discuss various conditions that have made the strategic aim of maintaining the sinus rhythm inferior to the laisses-fair approach. Since the authors see the importance of checking the AF not only through the ventricular rate, the literature proves to be relevant. Since the Afib is a condition that needs attention, it is important that the physician explores most of its aspects and make conclusions regarding the diagnosis. The literature also considers the need for handling patients in this category with the necessary professional diligence. This point makes the article appealing since various patients suffer from different levels of the disease. Some of the victims have stable Afib with others experiencing the unstable condition. In fact, atrial-fibrillation is a severe condition that needs specialists to recognize it at early stages. In reaction to this situation, the authors identify the silent nature of the rhythm disturbance as what aggravates the situation. They also ascertain that about 33% of the arrhythmia patients are nave regarding the asymptomatic AF’. The concept explains the need for earlier detection of atrial fibrillation. The concern makes the literature a recommended source for research since it discusses many issues regarding the handling of the atrial fibrillation patients. These principles apply both to patients who suffer from stable or unstable conditions. Moving further to identify the means of preventing the disorder makes the literature have higher ratings. In their literature source, they have done most of the procedures clear and straightforward to enable the physician to attend to the AF patient professionally.

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Finally, since the literature originates from an epitome of intellectuals, I certainly have no reservation regarding its quality. Apparently, it has tackled issues surrounding the atrial fibrillation succinctly. The guideline also details many concepts that physicians must consider when handling AF patients in both stable and unstable conditions. However, it appears that the authors have found the general aspects of the AF. They have discussed much concerning the patient conditions outside the hospital setting. Nevertheless, the approach they have given the problem proves relevant to this discussion.

Heidbuchel et al. (2013) in their article EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Executive summary approach the issue of atrial fibrillation from a different perspective. The article contains information concerning prescription of the oral anticoagulant for non-valvar atrial fibrillation (AF). The authors present information that is essential for clinicians who diagnose AF patients. They recognize the importance of using these oral drugs for both clinicians and patients. Practically, overdose or underdose of any drug can lead to severe circumstances. It is because of such possibilities that the authors provide these guidelines to increase efficiency with which clinicians discharge their duties. They also intend their work to reach AF patients who need to use these oral anticoagulants. The guidelines begin with providing a practical set-up and follow-up scheme for patients. It focuses on the patient and new oral anticoagulants. The article stresses a need to conduct the risk-benefit analysis before administering any medication to any patient with atrial fibrillation. Moreover, the authors emphasize the importance of examining the patient’s clinical profile before prescribing any NOAC to him/her. Therefore, the article is clear on how clinicians should handle these new patients before prescribing a treatment using the new oral anticoagulant (NOAC). The approach that they suggest for these new patients leaves no doubt regarding the quality of the work that clinicians are likely to perform. The next aspect that they present concerns how professionals should measure any anticoagulant effect on the NOAC. Despite the article disregarding the necessity of regularly monitoring these patients, it provides quantitative techniques to use in case there are any suspicions. This section contains detailed steps that a clinician should use to establish the problem if need. Such comprehensive procedures show the importance of this article in tackling issues relating to atrial fibrillation.

Furthermore, the article details the pharmacokinetics of the NOAC and its interaction with other drugs. Since the authors recognize the necessity for determining any reactions of this drug under certain conditions, they provide a detailed way of handling the effects of this drug. In their explanation, the authors recommend a tabular form for tracking or recording a patient’s information. The table also reports any emergencies that result from that analysis. Apparently, this step gives the article excellent rating concerning the way it handles the condition. More so, the guideline provides details for monitoring the patient after completing the treatment session. The authors go a step further to examine other diseases related to Afib and the impact that the drug has on them. In fact, they pay attention to patients with chronic kidney disease and bleeding incidences. Finally, the article explains how to remedy any wrong prescription, which is vital for the patient. The evaluation of this article confirms its details in tackling the atrial fibrillation condition. Moreover, it has approached the phenomenon from a different perspective as opposed to other sources. It provides guidelines on how to deal with NOAC problems during specific clinical situations. The methods used to arrive at various conclusions in the article are logical. The authors have used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to provide information regarding how to handle NOAC prescriptions. The article contains quantitative data concerning the NOAC intake while detailing qualitative aspects of this treatment. The reviewers of the article have also authenticated its content, thus making it attractive for reviewing. Besides, it provides a comprehensive analysis of the paper’s topic. Despite the article containing detailed information regarding the NOAC prescription and reactions, it does not discuss any symptoms of this disorder. However, the authors have provided the necessary information in support of their thesis.

Heidbuchel et al. (2013) also examine how clinicians use new oral anticoagulants on patients. They have narrowed down the topic to patients with non-vulvar atrial fibrillation. The authors consider the NOAC as the best substitute for vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The article concentrates on the need to prevent stroke in a patient with non-valvar AF. As a result, the report outlines factors that clinicians must take into account to remain efficient and effective while performing their duties. At the time of writing this article, the authors confirmed the existed need to explore the use of NOAC by cardiologists, neurologists, and clinicians among other professionals. Therefore, the guidelines appear to be blueprints of medical procedures necessary for diagnosing AF patients. The authors approach the challenge by explaining the process that the clinician must follow during a given situation. The article discusses each step from administering the drug to follow-up activities. It begins with explaining the practical start-up for patients with this condition. Determination of a patient’s anticoagulation merit and ability to use the novel agent form the pre-consideration required before deciding to administer NOAC. The authors recommend such considerations since they help the clinician to identify the status of the patient before subjecting them to treatment. The article also details the procedures for holding follow-ups. The authors recognize the need to follow-up the AF patients who take anticoagulants. Their concern relates to the possibility of patients experiencing a bleeding effect since the medication has drug-drug interactions. As a result, caretakers of such patients must make a follow-up to ascertain their condition. The article confirms the need for vigilance in dealing with these patients since anticoagulants have severe effects. Apparently, this point shows the level of research that the authors have performed. Their focus remains on the drug and its side effects for patients. Acknowledging the existence of the effects of the drug on its consumers is a proof of detail. The authors leave no doubt that clinicians have the responsibility to monitor the patients’ behavior on a regular basis with a view to noticing any reaction to the drug. Moreover, they stress the need for a patient to go for review in three months after prescription. The process would enable detection of any severe effects that could result from taking the drug. Moreover, it would enable caretakers to have a close examination of the patient and avoid any further reaction. In an attempt to assist clinicians, the authors detail the symptoms that could act as an indication for the presence of a severe reaction to coagulants. Another area that the article explores is the procedural switch between different anticoagulant therapies. The authors describe such procedures to aid the process and prevent any procedural errors. They have used quantitative analysis in approaching this problem by providing calculations regarding effects of NOAC on plasma levels. The details are useful in guiding the clinician on considerations they should make when switching between different regimes. The knowledge proves to be relevant since it allows these professionals to avoid any mistakes that could lead to severe outcomes. The article is appropriate for the study since it provides information concerning the status of atrial fibrillation in patients. Heidbuchel et al. (2013) have explored various problems relating to anticoagulants while providing guidelines that the clinicians should use to know how to behave in such situations. Their work also proves that they have employed appropriate methods to solicit information regarding the problem. The authors have referenced quality literature that helps in authentications of the material. Moreover, the article is peer-reviewed, thereby confirming the excellence of the information it contains. As a result, this literature review has no reservation regarding the quality of the information included in the document.

According to Lip et al. (2010), there is still the need to identify the best ways to handle atrial fibrillation patients. Uncertainty regarding an optimal antithrombotic management strategy for the AF patients explains the reason for the research. In their statement, the authors stress the need for clinicians to balance the risk associated with the atrial fibrillation. They isolate areas that require balancing to include the possibility of stroke and thromboembolism. The clinician should balance them against the risk of recurrent cardiac ischaemia and stent thrombosis. Additionally, they should balance it against the risk of bleeding. In response to such cases, the authors present their consensus document that includes the best practices for the antithrombotic therapy. The guidelines are intended for the management of the antithrombotic therapy in the AF patients. These guidelines are compressive enough to be applied to patients in both stable and unstable states of the atrial fibrillation. The authors present an overview of the pathophysiology of thrombogenesis in the AF. Their analysis explores possible areas that the disorder exposes the patient to. A detailed discussion of stroke, which is a common problem attributed to the AF, makes the article reliable. While performing this analysis, the authors isolate areas that prove to be similar to systemic thromboembolism. The review considers such study to be ideal for expanding the clinicians’ knowledge concerning the AF patient. The result of such analysis would mean giving clinicians the competency needed to handle all aspects of atrial fibrillation. Another area that the literature source examines succinctly concerns clinical factors that relate to an increased risk of stroke and thromboembolism. The authors detail these factors in a manner that allows problem tracking. The listing also explains similarities and differences between unstable and stable atrial patients. The content of the article shows a lot of details in the research, which qualifies it as a good information source. The manner in which the authors present ideas and support them make the work worth reading. The article also contains information from other peer-reviewed sources. Moreover, the document reviewers have provided the public with the assurance regarding validity and authenticity of the presented information. The approach and methods that the authors use to obtain the evidence for their information remain acknowledgeable. They use both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data. For instance, information on the risky nature of stroke for the AF patients is obtained from an empirically based qualitative analysis. In turn, the periprocedural issues are supported with quantitative data. As a result, one finds the content of the article to qualify for the literature review. Finally, it is important to acknowledge that this article addresses an area that still creates challenges in the society. Therefore, the authors present the guidelines at the right time to mitigate prevailing negative outcomes of the condition. However, the area still needs more research and clarification since atrial fibrillation remains a challenge today. Since the authors have considered a lot of standard requirements in presenting their article, there is no criticism regarding their work.

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Prystowsky et al. (2010) also approach the issue of atrial fibrillation by exploring the impact of new and emerging data on this area. The article details the problem that patients face and the difficulty involved in handling the AF condition. The authors have used such methods as exploring the epidemiology. Moreover, they have examined impacts that the increasing incidence rates of the AF have on the health care system. This aspect of their study proves to be vital since it approaches the problem by identifying challenges faced by clinicians and doctors handling such ailments. The method also entails examining pharmacological and surgical interventions that these professionals use while deciding on the intervention, especially in case of arrhythmias and thromboprophylaxis. The study of the effect of the procedures on treatment strategies and the barriers that hinder their implementation also prove to be relevant. The authors have used these methods to obtain relevant information for their research. It is following these details that the paper finds the article to be appropriate for the review. The authors have also presented their results using logical procedures. For instance, they have found the impact of the AF incidence to be familiar for the aging population and many cases of comorbidities. The authors have also noticed changes in treatment paradigms due to the availability of medical treatments in various areas. According to the article, the hospital management has been working with the aim to reduce instances of hospitalization. The situation concerns introduction of new treatment approaches for the atrial fibrillation. It also highlights the focus of the hospital management on long-term outcomes as opposed to other techniques like the symptom/safety-driven strategy. The authors have also identified many barriers to optimal treatment. Some of this hurdles included poor adherence to treatment and incidences of stroke. These results show a connection with their study thesis. Such consistencies qualify the article to provide necessary information regarding the atrial fibrillation. Moreover, the approach to the study is of importance for the understanding of stable and unstable conditions. In their conclusion, the authors acknowledge benefits that the new approach to the AF treatment has had. However, they stress the need for clinicians to observe the guidance and guidelines for the treatment. Despite the article containing most of the information concerning the AF, it fails to offer solutions to existing problems. The authors have identified the impacts of the new strategies while isolating weak areas that require adjustments without providing solutions to them.

Finally, Jani et al. (2007) approach the issue of atrial fibrillation from the perspective of blood transfusion. The article concentrates on in-hospital outcomes in anemic patients to aid the understanding of conditions associated with the AF disorder. The authors have used a detailed method to conduct their study. As a result, they have obtained sufficient data to allow them to carry out the analysis. They have used the empirical method to collect data from different health centers. Their sample is a representation of the population, hence making their findings reliable. Furthermore, the authors have subjected the raw data to statistical analysis to make overall and significant conclusions. They have performed a propensity matching by using regression analysis to determine correlations and statistical significance of the results. The article also contains a multivariate analysis of the data obtained. The authors then conclude about the relationship between in-hospital deaths and blood transfusion. This outcome shows the level of care that clinicians give to patients with blood-related problems. Even though the article does not directly discuss the atrial fibrillation condition, it offers an insight into how caretakers offer their services to in-hospital patients. Moreover, it allows evaluating the management levels in these hospitals. Such exploration allows readers to reach a conclusion regarding how doctors handle severe conditions. Moreover, it describes the quantitative approach to the problem at hand. The detailed nature of this article makes it relevant for the examination of the topic concerning hospital conditions and management. Poor management procedures can lead to patients losing their lives. The situation is likely to occur irrespective of the disorder an individual suffers from under these circumstances. It, therefore, confirms that clinicians and other personnel handling patients must possess adequate skills in their fields. It would enable these professional to minimize negative outcomes associated with their work. Most of the research results show the need for improving handling of patients in hospitals. The step can reduce the in-hospital death rate associated with blood transfusion. The same concept applies to managing atrial fibrillation patients with stables and unstable conditions. Therefore, it remains relevant for this review in many respects.

In conclusion, the unstable and stable conditions of atrial fibrillation pose a lot of challenges, thereby necessitating their analysis. Many patients suffer from the AF condition, which makes a study of treatments for this condition vital. As a result, the review has considered those works of literature that provide guidelines on how to handle this condition. Most authors have performed their job with due diligence and required technical competence. The information in these articles has been gathered with the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques, thereby minimizing bias. Furthermore, the reviewers of most of these articles are people with excellent academic qualifications. Therefore, it proves the quality of the information contained in the articles. The paper has also considered other articles that provide general information regarding hospital conditions. The move shows that it explores management of conditions in hospitals besides the AF. Understanding other areas provides adequate information concerning the topic. Hence, the review considers the articles to be relevant in all respects.

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