Annotated Bibliography: Possible Criminal Future of the Children
Shuo Zhao, L. (2012, March 22). Chinese underground banks and their connections with crime: A review and an appraisal. International Criminal Justice Review, 22 (1), 5-23.
In the paper, Shuo Zhao defines the origins of “underground banks” of China which is mostly recognized as Chinese informal transfer system. The author identifies three types of financial institutions in the state, focusing the review on one of them which dealing in forex and remittance services. Using the research materials both from China and the United States, examining the interrelations between banks and organized crime the paper tries to discover whether or not IFTS can be considered a criminal entity. This is the first research directing attention on customers and owners of Chinese underground banks and their prior and nowadays history. The study explores human smuggling and money laundering in relation to bank operations. The author claims that this paper can be just a first step in related topic consideration. Thus, better tools should be designed and used in order to proceed further with the research and advance the studies of Chinese banking system imperfections.
Tchividjian, Basyle J. (2012, July 1). Predators and propensity: The proper approach for determining the admissibility of prior bad acts evidence in child sexual abuse prosecutions. American Journal of Criminal Law, 39.
In this article, the author tries to determine the instruments to measure the presence and, afterwards, admissibility of prior bad evidence of children’s sexual abusers. He takes a close look at historical records of prior bad acts in child sexual abuse field and its evolution from “admissible” to “actual evidence”. According to the research conducted in 2001, there is a previous bad act presence while investigating the cases of child sexual crimes. However, the researcher admits that their admissibility can be questioned. He suggests that a current state of Rule 403 could be significantly improved by applying “propensity factors”. Tchividjian believes that these behavioral instruments will add clarity and lacked purpose to the existing practice of Propensity Proposal. Based on evaluation of several fictional testimonies and probable presence of all three behavioral threads, the author tries to determine the probative value, relevance and admissibility of previous bad act evidence.
Van de Rakt, M., Murray, J., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2012, February 9). The long-term effects of paternal imprisonment on criminal trajectories of children. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 49 (1), 81-108.
This paper reviews the influence of parental incarceration on children’s criminal path. Unlike previous studies, this research is based on a large number of statistical data on convicts. The article covers the differences in children “criminal careers” depending on the timeline and duration of parental conviction as well as gender aspect of possible future imprisonments. The authors acquire their timing hypothesis from popular trauma, modeling and social learning, labeling and strain theories. They introduce the idea that the longer parental imprisonment is the higher is the risk for their children to take after them. The researchers examine and review prior studies on the matter to provide a sufficient background to their own hypothesis. A unique “growth curve analysis” is applied to determine the causes of criminal behavior among the children of former imprisoned parents. Among other variables, child gender is inspected in relation to timing of conviction. The authors suggest that the further studies should address not only possible criminal future of the children but also other areas of their lives.